Historically, the earliest versions of quantum mechanics

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Historically, the earliest versions of quantum mechanics

Post  taixyz1992 on Thu Dec 30, 2010 6:05 pm

Historically, the earliest versions of quantum mechanics were formulated in the first decade of the 20th century at around the same time as the atomic theory and the corpuscular theory of light as updated by Einstein first came to be widely accepted as scientific fact; these latter theories can be viewed as quantum theories of matter and electromagnetic radiation. Quantum theory was significantly reformulated in the mid-1920s away from the old quantum theory towards the quantum mechanics formulated by Werner Heisenberg, Max Born, Wolfgang Pauli and their associates, accompanied by the acceptance of the Copenhagen interpretation of Niels Bohr. By 1930, quantum mechanics had been further unified and formalized by the work of Paul Dirac and John von Neumann, with a greater emphasis placed on measurement in quantum mechanics, the statistical nature of our knowledge of reality and philosophical speculation about the role of the observer. Quantum mechanics has since branched out into almost every aspect of 20th century physics and other disciplines such as quantum chemistry, quantum electronics, quantum optics and quantum information science. Much 19th century physics has been re-evaluated as the classical limit of quantum mechanics, and its more advanced developments in terms of quantum field theory, string theory, and speculative quantum gravity theories.

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